March 31, 2009

Cyanotic infants with shortness of breath

A 5 months old boy was brought to the hospital because of difficulty in breathing. There is bluish discoloration of skin. He appears small compare to other infants at his age.

1) Label the abnormalities observed in 1-4 (4m)

2) What is the name of the disease (1m)

3) List three predisposing factor for the cause of disease(3m)

4) Outline 2 treatment for this baby (2m)

5) What cause the small size baby and the bluish discoloration (4m)


a) Pulmonary stenosis
b) Right Ventricle hypertrophy
c) Over riding of aorta on the VSD
d) Ventricular septal defect

2) Tetralogy of fallot

a) Maternal factor
- Rubella infection
- Alcohol abuse
- Drugs and radiation
b) Fetal
- Genetic abnormalities (Marfan syndrome)
- chromosomal abnormalities, Down’s and Turner’s synd

a) Palliative shunt (<6 months)
b) Corrective surgery

a) Blue spell
-cyanotic due to increase in deoxygenated blood/ carbaminohemoglobin in blood
b) Growth retardation
Lethargy may cause baby refuse the breast feeding.

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Ya Allah! Permudahkanlah aku untuk menuntut ilmuMu, memahaminya, mengingati dan menyebarkannya. Berkatilah ilmu itu dan tambahkanlah ia. Amin.